Citing Sources

Learn how to cite your sources

Table of Contents

APA Citation Examples: Books

Basic Format for a Book:

  • Reference List: Last name, First Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. (Edition) [if other than the 1st]. Location: Publisher.
  • In-text: (Author, Year)

   ~ Book with One Author:

  • Reference List: Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  • In-text: (Brader, 2006)

   ~ ​Book with More than One Author:

  • Reference List: Miller, T. E., Bender, B. E., & Schuh, J. H. (2005). Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • In-text: (Miller, Bender, & Schuh, 2005)

Basic format for an eBook:

  • Reference List: Author's Last name. First Initial. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from home_page_URL 
  • In-text: (Author, Year)

  ~ Example:

  • Reference List: Brock, J., & Arciuli, J. (2014). Communication in autism. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
  • In-text: (Brock & Arciuli, 2014)

APA Citation Examples: Articles

Basic Format for a Print Article: 

  • Last name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper TitleVolume number(Issue number), Page numbers, inclusive (the page numbers of the entire article).

   ~ Magazine Article:

  •  Monthly White, C. (2006, April). The spirit of disobedience. Atlantic, 312(1871), 31-40. 

   ~ Journal Article:

  • Newman, J. L., Fuqua, D. R., Gray, E. A., & Simpson, D. B. (2006). Gender differences in the relationship of anger and depression in a clinical sample. Journal of Counseling & Development84, 157-161.

    ~ Newspaper Article: 

  • Zernike, K. (2015, October 25). White house moves to limit school testing: National desk. New York Times, p. A1. 
  • Note: For newspaper articles, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4. 

Basic Format for an Online Article:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine/Journal/Newspaper Title, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. doi or Retrieved from URL of publication home page

   ~ Online Journal Article with DOI Assigned:

  • Basic Format: 
    • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000
  • Example:
    • Denhart, H. (2008). Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities41(6), 483-497. doi: 10.1177/0022219408321151

   ~ Online Journal Article with no DOI Assigned:

  • Basic Format:
    • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number). Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/
  • Example: 
    • von Busch, O., & Palmas, K. (2016). Designing consent: Can design thinking manufacture democratic capitalism? Organizational Aesthetics, 5(2), 10-24. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wpi.edu/oa/. 

   ~ Newspaper Article Found on a Newspaper's Website:

  • Basic Format:
    • Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from 
      http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ 
  • Example:
    • Zernike, K. (2016, February 29). Testing for joy and grit? Schools nationwide push to measure students’ emotional skills. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/01/us/testing-for-joy-and-grit-schools-nationwide-push-to-measure-students-emotional-skills.html?_r=0 

APA Citation Examples: Images

Basic Format for an electronic image:

  • Last name, First initial. (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work]. Retrieved from www.somewebsite.com 

Note: If you can only find the screen name of an author, use that as the author's name. Maintain the formatting of the screen name. For example, if a screen name is in all lower case, keep the name in lower case in your citations. 

   ~ Example: 

           Two orange cats sleeping next to each other

This photo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License. A human readable summary of the license can be found here

 

Navigating Copyright for Reproduced Images

The APA Style Blog takes you through the four steps of navigating copyright for reproduced images:

  1. Understand the copyright status of the image.
  2. Determine whether permission is needed to reproduce the image.
  3. Secure permission to reproduce the image, if permission is needed. 
  4. Write the APA Style copyright statement and reference list entry for the image. 

APA Citation Examples: IQPs & MQPs

Print

Dunn, K. A., Hands, M. D., & Lloyd, N. M. (2004). Feasibility of 
           Kablejou Aquaculture in Namibia.
Unpublished Interactive Qualifying Project.
           Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

Electronic

Frey, J. P., Kendrick, R., Lowell, J. M., & Rothermel, J. M. (2006). Energy
            Profiling for Off-Grid Energization Solutions in Namibia
(Undergraduate 
            Interactive Qualifying Project No. E-project-050307-071942). Retrieved 
            from Worcester Polytechnic Institute Electronic Projects Collection:
            http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-050307-071942

 

Scanned

Sansoucie, J. W., Ellsworth, E. M., Doyon, S. & Arnal, K. L. (2005). Opportunities 
           a
nd Challenges for the Advancement of Citizen Science Programs.  (Undergraduate 
           Interactive Qualifying Project No. 05D167I). Retrieved from 
           Worcester Polytechnic Institute Scanned Projects Collection:
           http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Scanned/05D167I/05D167I.pdf

APA Citation Examples: Patents

Reference List Format: 

Surname, A. B. (year). Patent Identifier No. xxx. Location: Source Name.

Reference List Example:

Bell, A. G. (1876). U.S. Patent No. 174,465. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

In-Text Citation Format: 

In text, cite the patent identifier and the year.

In-Text Citation Example: 

(U.S. Patent No. 174,465, 1846)