FP 572: Failure Analysis

Professor Christopher Wood

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Peer Reviewed or Refeered

What are "peer reviewed or "refereed" journals?

A peer reviewed journal is a special type of publication. Before articles are published within these types of journals, they are sent by the editors of the journal to other scholars in the field ("peers"), often anonymously, to get feedback on the quality of the scholarship, review research methods, as well as relevance or importance to the field. The article may be accepted, often with revisions suggested, or rejected for publication.  

Considered the most respected, researchers wish to have their works published in them. Many often have low acceptance rates. 

To find peer reviewed articles within Summon, notice the option to Limit to articles from peer-reviewed publication.

Screenshot of a Summon search for japanese anime inflluene "popular culture" 

How do you know if you have found a peer-reviewed article?

There's only one fool-proof way to know: Look at the journal's website or information for authors.  If the journal is peer-reviewed the editors will come right out and say so.  For example, here is the statement for the Journal of Fire Protection Engineering:


1. Peer review policy

Journal of Fire Protection Engineering operates under a conventional single-blind reviewing policy in which the reviewer’s name is always concealed from the submitting author.

All manuscripts are reviewed initially by one of the Editors and only those papers that meet the scientific and editorial standards of the journal, and fit within the aims and scope of the journal, will be sent for peer review.  Generally, reviews from two independent referees are required.


Take a look for these features to ensure that you are looking at scholarly literature:

  1. Is the author affiliated with an academic institution?
  2. Does the article have a DOI?  DOI stands for digital object identifier.  Find out more at http://dx.doi.org
  3. Does the author cite many references and include in-text citations?
  4. Does the article include an abstract, literature review, methodology, and results?

If the answer to all or most the above is "yes," then go the extra mile and check the editorial page to make sure that the journal uses a peer-review or refereed process.

About Scholarly Journals

Current Issue Cover for the Journal of Fire Protection Engineering

 Journal articles are written by scholars in an academic or professional field. An editorial board reviews articles to decide whether they should be published. Journal articles may cover very specific topics or narrow fields of research.

Use a journal:

  • when doing scholarly research
  • to find out what has been studied on your topic
  • to find bibliographies that point to other relevant research

Characteristics of Scholarly Journals

Authors are:

scholars in the field, academics or researchers.

Sources are:

always cited with many references and/or footnotes.

Articles are:

long with sections such as abstract, literature review, methodology, results and conclusion.

They are:

similar to books, usually don't have color and never ads, even in online versions.

How to Cite

Example print scholarly journal reference citation in American Psychological Association (APA) style:

Tovy, T. (2011, Fall) . Manifest destiny in pow camps: The U.S. Army reeducation program during the Korean War. Historian, 73(3), 503-525.

Example electronic journal with DOI reference citation in American Psychological Association (APA) style:

Wang, Z., Zhang, B., Yin, J. and Zhang, X. (2011, June-July) . Willingness and behavior towards e-waste recycling for residents in Beijing city, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19 (9-19) , 977-984 . doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.09.016