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Surface Metrology: Citation Guidance: ACS

Research guide for students and researchers of Surface Metrology

ACS Style Guide

 

Here is a guide from the American Chemical Society (ACS) to help you use ACS citation style properly:

American Chemistry Society (ACS) Style Guidance

The following video will provide students with an overview of ACS Style.

General

References in the text should be cited in one of three ways:

1. By superscript numbers, which appear outside the punctuation if the citation applies to a whole sentence or clause.

Oscillation in the reaction of benzaldehyde with oxygen was reported previously.3

2. By italic numbers in parentheses on the line of text and inside the punctuation.

The mineralization of TCE by a pure culture of a methane-oxidizing organism has been reported (6).

3. By author name and year of publication in parentheses inside the punctuation (known as author–date).

The primary structure of this enzyme has also been determined (Finnegan et al., 2004).

All References:

  • Periodical references must include the author names, abbreviated journal title, year of publication, volume number (if any), and initial page of cited article (the complete span is better). 
  • Book references must include the author or editor names, book title, publisher, city of publication, and year of publication.
  • For material other than books and journals, sufficient information must be provided so that the source can be identified and located.

Guidelines:

Cite the reference in a logical place in the sentence.

References should be numbered sequentially.  If a reference is cited more than once, it does not receive a new number, use the original reference number.  If citing more than one reference at a time, include reference numbers in increasing order separated by commas (without spaces as superscripts, with spaces on line) or use an en dash to indicate a range of three or more. 

When citing more than one reference at one place by the author–date system, list them alphabetically according to the first author’s name, followed by a comma and the year. Use a semicolon to separate individual references. When citing more than one reference by the same author at one place by the author–date system, do not repeat the name. List the name followed by the year of each of the references in ascending order; separate the years by commas. If an author has more than one reference in the same year, add lowercase letters to the years to differentiate them. 

In all three systems, the author’s name may be made part of the sentence. In such cases, in the author–date system, place only the year in parentheses.

The syntheses described by Fraser8 take advantage of carbohydrate topology.

Jensen (3) reported oscillation in the reaction of benzaldehyde with oxygen.

According to Harris (2003), drug release is controlled by varying the hydrolytic stability of the ester bond.

Whenever authors are named, if a reference has two authors, give both names joined by the word “and”. If a reference has more than two authors, give only the first name listed, followed by “et al.” Do not use a comma before et al.; always use a period after al.

Allison and Perez12

Johnson et al. (12)

(O’Brien and Alenno, 2005)

(Bachrach et al., 2004)

Books

Books

Book references must include the author or editor names, book title, publisher, city of publication, and year of publication.

Author Name

Separate the names of multiple authors by semicolons, and always end the author field with a period. List names in inverted form: surname first, then first initial, middle initial, and qualifiers (Jr., II).

 If a book has no primary authors because each chapter was written by a different author, you may place the editor names in the author name field (especially for lists in alphabetical order). Separate editor names by commas, and a period after the abbreviation Ed. or Eds. terminates the field.

Stocker, J. H., Ed. Chemistry and Science Fiction; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1998. 

Chapter Title

Chapter titles are not required. Chapter titles are set in roman type and end with a period.

Puls, J.; Saake, B. Industrially Isolated Hemicelluloses. In Hemicelluloses: Science and Technology; Gatenholm, P., Tenkanen, M., Eds.; ACS Symposium Series 864; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2004; pp 24–37. 

Book Title

 In general, book titles should not be abbreviated. They are set in italic type and are separated from the next field of the reference by a semicolon, which is set in italic type. The edition number (in ordinal form) and the abbreviation “ed.” follow the book title, set off by an italic comma; they are set in roman type. The edition information is separated from the next field of the reference by a semicolon.

Reagent Chemicals, 10th ed.;

When both authors and editors are given, use the word “In” (set in roman type) immediately before the title of the book to indicate that the cited authors wrote only part of the book.

Hillman, L. W. In Dye Laser Principles with Applications; Duarte, F. J., Hillman, L. W., Eds.; Academic: New York, 1990; Chapter 2. 

Editor Name 

For books with editors, list the names of the editors, after title and edition information, in inverted form, separated from one another by commas. The names are denoted as editors by including the abbreviation “Eds.” or “Ed.” after the final name. The editor field is set in roman type and ends with a semicolon (unless it is used in the author field location).

Lignocellulose Biodegradation; Saha, B. C., Hayashi, K., Eds.; ACS Symposium Series 889; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2004.

The Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Oxidants and Oxidation in the Earth’s Atmosphere; Bandy, A. R., Ed.; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, U.K., 1995.

In books that have no primary authors, the names of the editors may appear in either the author name field (especially for lists in alphabetical order) or the editor name field. When the editor names appear in the author name field, they are separated by commas and the field ends with a period.

Saha, B. C., Hayashi, K., Eds.; Lignocellulose Biodegradation; ACS Symposium Series 889; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2004.

Bandy, A. R., Ed. The Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Oxidants and Oxidation in the Earth’s Atmosphere; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, U.K., 1995.

Publication Information

Name of Publisher: Generally, do not abbreviate publishers’ names.

Place of Publication: For the place of publication, give the city and state for U.S. cities or the city and country for all others. 

Year of Publication: In book references, the year is set in lightface (not bold) roman type, following the place of publication. Terminate the field with a period or with a semicolon if further information is given.

Gould, S. J. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory; Belknap Press: Cambridge, MA, 2002. Kline, R. B. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 2nd ed.; Guilford Press: New York, 2004.

Volume Information

Include volume number and chapter number. Use the following abbreviations and spelled-out forms with the capitalization, spelling, and punctuation shown:

  • Abstract
  • No.  
  • Paper
  • Part
  • Vol. (for specific volumes, Vol. 4; Vols. 1, 2; Vols. 1 and 2; Vols. 3–5)
  • vols. (for a number of volumes, 4 vols.)

Annual Review of Physical Chemistry; Leone, S. R., McDermott, A. E., Paul, A., Eds.; Annual Reviews: Palo Alto, CA, 2005; Vol. 56.

If a volume or part number refers to the volume or part of an entire series of books, this information is placed where a series number would normally appear and not in the volume field for the specific book being cited.

Wiberg, K. In Investigations of Rates and Mechanisms of Reactions; Lewis, E. S., Ed.; Techniques of Chemistry, Vol. VI, Part I; Wiley & Sons: New York, 1974; p 764.

If the book or set of books as a whole is the reference, do not include individual volume information.

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 9th ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 2002; 20 vols.

Pagination Information

Pagination information is set in roman type and ends with a period, except when miscellaneous information follows it, in which case it should end with a semicolon (see the next section). Use the abbreviations “p” and “pp” to indicate single and multiple pages, respectively.

  • p 57
  • pp 48–51
  • pp 30, 52, 76
  • 2005; Vol. 2, p 35.
  • 2004; pp 55–61.  

If the book as a whole is the reference, page numbers need not be given.

Miscellaneous Information

If you wish to include additional information about a book that is important for the reader to know, you may add it at the end of the reference with or without parentheses, append it to the title in parentheses before the semicolon, or place it between the title and the publisher.

Series Publications

Publications such as book series that are periodical in nature but are not journals may be styled as either books or journals. 

Online

Online

Web Sites

Author (if any). Title of Site. URL (accessed Month Day, Year), other identifying information (if any).

Use the title found on the Web site itself; add the words “Home Page” for clarification when needed. Data retrieved from Internet-based databases should include a data entry number. Stand-alone databases should be cited as computer programs. 

If an article is contained within a large and complex Web site, such as that for a university or a government agency, the host organization and the relevant program or department should be identified before giving the direct URL of the article and accession date.

Online Periodicals

Based on Print Editions

Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; etc. Title of Article. Journal Abbreviation [Online] Year, Volume, Inclusive pagination or other identifying information. URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

Online Only

Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; etc. Title of Article. Journal Abbreviation [Online] Year, Volume, Article Number or other identifying information. URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

Online Books

Without Editors

Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; etc. Book Title [Online]; Series Information (if any); Publisher: Place of Publication, Year; Volume Number, Pagination. URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

 With Editors

Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; etc. Chapter Title. In Book Title [Online]; Editor 1, Editor 2, etc., Eds.; Series Information (if any); Publisher: Place of Publication, Year; Volume Number, Pagination. URL (accessed Month Day, Year).

Computer Program

References to computer programs must be treated on a case-by-case basis. Five common presentations of computer programs are possible:

1. Book format, with the name of the program as the title

Author 1; Author 2; etc. Program Title, version or edition; Publisher: Place of Publication, Year.

2. Technical Report format

Author. Title of Report; Technical Report Number; Publisher: Place of Publication, Year; Pagination (if any).

3. CASSI format

Johnson, C. K. Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., [Rep.] ORNL (U.S.) 1978, ORNL-5348

4. Free style, as a simple listing of program title and author of program

When only minimal information (e.g., author and program name) is available, present the information as simply as possible.

Programs used in this study included local modifications of Jacobson’s ALLS, Zalkins’s FORDAP, Busing and Levy’s ORFEE, and Johnson’s ORTEP2.

5. Thesis style

Sheldrick, G. M. SHELX-76: Program for Crystal Structure Determination. Cambridge University, 1976.