|You must provide a citation when:||By citing your sources you:|
Quoting directly from a source (copying the words of another)
Paraphrasing ideas or information from a source (rewriting a passage in your own words)
Incorporating into your paper information or ideas that are not general knowledge
Demonstrate to your reader how your own ideas stem from, differ from, or relate to those in your sources
Assist your reader, who may want to look further into the sources that you found helpful
Share intellectual activity honestly and properly
The Chicago NB (Notes & Bibliography) system is often used in scholarship for History and Art History and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources.
To see examples of what Chicago style citations should look like for different source types, check out the following websites. These websites provide guidance on how to format footnotes and bibliography entries for a variety of source types.
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Key Student Learning Competencies:
You should include a footnote each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary.
In the Chicago NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work. It should include all sources cited within the work.
Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources (books, articles, websites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed on a source, the title of that source may be used instead for alphabetization in the bibliography.
Entries in the bibliography generally include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information. The publication information includes the publication date. For books, include the city of publication and the name of the publisher. For journal articles, include the name of the journal. For journal articles, also include the volume number, issue number, and page range if this information is available. For online sources, include a DOI (digital object identifier) or URL.
The first author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John. (If an author is not listed first, this applies to compilers, translators, etc.) If there is more than one author, write the first author's name as Surname, First Name. Write the other author's names as First Name Surname.
Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, webpages, etc. are placed in quotation marks.
The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.
In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.
Formatting the Bibliography: