Examples on this page were updated on March 11, 2020 to reflect changes in the 7th Edition of the APA Manual of Style.
Basic Format for a Book:
~ Book with One Author:
~ Book with Two Authors:
Basic format for an eBook:
Basic Format for a Print Article:
~ Magazine Article:
~ Journal Article:
~ Newspaper Article:
Basic Format for an Online Article:
~ Online Journal Article with DOI Assigned:
~ Online Journal Article with no DOI Assigned:
~ Newspaper Article Found on a Newspaper's Website:
Basic Format for citing an image in the Reference List:
Note: If you can only find the screen name of an author, use that as the author's name. Maintain the formatting of the screen name. For example, if a screen name is in all lower case, keep the name in lower case in your citations. If there is no title, create your own title that describes the content of the image.
Example of a Reference List citation for an image:
Formatting Figures in Your Paper:
Each image in your paper should have a figure number, a title, and a caption. The caption should describe the image, provide a citation for the image, and provide copyright information. For example:
Two Cats Resting
Note. This photo shows two orange cats resting in the "loaf" position. From Nap time [Photograph], by D. Sipler, 2005, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/photofarmer/284159867/in/set-72157594353612286). CC BY 2.0.
If you have taken the photo or created the image, you do not need to cite it or provide copyright information for it. You will still need to label the picture with a figure number and title, and you will need to provide a caption with information on what the image shows.
For more information on formatting tables and figures in your APA style paper, see:
Navigating Copyright for Reproduced Images
If you did not create the image, you need to provide a copyright statement for that image. The APA Style Blog takes you through the four steps of navigating copyright for reproduced images:
For more information on copyright and finding safe to reuse images, see the library's Copyright Guide.
Theses & Dissertations
Author Last Name, First Initials. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No. if available) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name. URL, if available
Cooper, B. S. (2018). Interactive planning and sensing for aircraft in uncertain environments with spatiotemporally evolving threats (Publication No. etd-042219-162643) [Doctoral dissertation, Worcester Polytechnic Institute]. Digital
IQPs & MQPs
Author Last Name, First Initials. (Year). Title of IQP or MQP [Undergraduate interactive qualifying project or Undergraduate major qualifying project, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name. URL
Frey, J. P., Kendrick, R., Lowell, J. M., & Rothermel, J. M. (2006). Energy
profiling for off-grid energization solutions in Namibia [Undergraduate
interactive qualifying project, Worcester Polytechnic Institute]. Digital WPI. https://digital.wpi.edu/show/bg257f381
Reference List Format:
Inventor, A. A. (Year patent issued). Title of patent (U.S. Patent No. ###). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. URL
Reference List Example:
Bell, A. G. (1876). Improvement in telegraphy. (U.S. Patent No. 174,465). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US174465A/en
In-Text Citation Format:
In text, cite the inventor and the year.
In-Text Citation Example: